Introduction to C++ Variadic Templates

This is a friendly introduction to variadic templates (and thereby, variadic functions) in C++. We can use variadic functions to write functions that accept an arbitrary number of arguments.

First, let’s focus on the syntax: how do we read a variadic template? What are the different syntactic elements, and what are they called? Let’s look at a simple example. We’ll create a variadic function ignore that does nothing (it ignores its arguments).

template <typename... Ts>  // (1)
void ignore(Ts... ts) {}   // (2)
  1. We use typename... Ts to declare Ts as a so-called template parameter pack. You’ll often see these called as e.g. Ts, as in, multiple Ts. Other common names are Args, or Rest. The ellipsis (...) operator is used here to declare that Ts truly is a template parameter pack.

  2. Our function signature accepts a closely-related function parameter pack – in other words, a bag of parameters, whose types are given by the aforementioned template parameter pack. It is declared as Ts... ts, with the ellipsis operator used to indicate that Ts does refer to a template parameter pack.

You can mentally unwrap the above definition of ignore as:

template <typename T1, typename T2, ..., typename Tn>
void ignore(T1 t1, T2 t2, ..., Tn tn) {}

This also makes it clear that each type in the template parameter pack can be different – just to be concrete, calling:

ignore(1, 2.0, true);

has the effect of instantiating our templated function with types ignore<int, double, bool>(1, 2.0, true).

An important side note: it’s possible for a template parameter pack to contain 0 types. This might be somewhat obvious, but it’ll become more important later.

Okay, we know what they are – but how do we use them? How do we implement a variadic function that does some real work?

Let’s start by implementing a variadic sum – it’ll take a bunch of arguments, and just attempt to add them all up. We’ll assume that the function returns a double for now, although in practice you’d probably like the result to depend on the input types (e.g. adding two ints should probably return an int).

If you’re like me, the first thing you probably wished you could write was something like:

template <typename... Ts>
double sum(Ts... ts) {
  double result = 0.0;
  for (auto el : ts)
    result += el;
  return result;

Unfortunately, this won’t do. Here’s what I get from clang:

error: expression contains unexpanded parameter pack 'ts'
  for (auto el : ts)

When it comes to handling variadic functions, you can’t think in the standard ‘iterative’ C++ style. You need to write such functions recursively – with a ‘base’ case, and a ‘recursive’ case that reduces, eventually, into a ‘base’ case. This implies a separate function for each case.

Unfortunately, none of this makes sense until you see an example. So let’s start with a working example, and then break it down.

// The base case: we just have a single number.
template <typename T>
double sum(T t) {
  return t;

// The recursive case: we take a number, alongside
// some other numbers, and produce their sum.
template <typename T, typename... Rest>
double sum(T t, Rest... rest) {
  return t + sum(rest...);

We have our ‘base’ case, accepting one argument T, and our ‘recursive’ case, accepting one or more arguments T and Rest. (Recall that a template parameter pack can be empty!)

How exactly does this work? Let’s trace what happens when we try to call, for example, sum(1.0, 2.0, 3.0). This is going to be a bit repetitive, but it’s worth it to walk through the process at least once.

  1. The compiler generates code for sum(1.0, 2.0, 3.0). There are two competing overloads for sum here: the base case, and the recursive case. Since we’re passing in three arguments, the base case does not apply (it only accepts a single argument), so we select the recursive case.

  2. Type deduction is performed – the compiler deduces T = double, and puts the rest in our parameter pack, with Rest = <double, double>.

  3. The compiler generates code for t + sum(rest...). It sees the recursive call to sum(rest...). Note the use of ... to ‘unpack’ the template argument – this has the effect of transforming sum(rest...) to sum(2.0, 3.0).

  4. The compiler generates code for sum(2.0, 3.0). As in the first case, there are two competing overloads: the base case, and the recursive case. The base case once again does not apply as we have more than one argument, so we select the recursive case.

  5. Type deduction is performed – the compiler deduces T = double, and Rest = <double>. It’s subtle, but notice that we have now unpacked our original <double, double> pack to T = double and Rest = <double>.

  6. The compiler generates code for t + sum(rest...). It sees the recursive call to sum(rest...) – this time, with sum(rest...) expanding to simply sum(3.0).

  7. The compiler generates code for sum(3.0). We have now finally hit our base case: the overload taking only T is more specialized, relative to the overload taking both T and Ts.... The compiler generates code for the base case, and we’re done with the recursion.

All in all, the expression expands in the following way (using indices to distinguish the various ts produced on expansion):

t0 + sum(rest...);         // initial state
t0 + sum(t1, t2);          // unpack 'rest...' as 't1, t2'
t0 + (t1 + sum(rest...));  // replace 'sum(t1, t2)' with code
t0 + (t1 + sum(t2));       // unpack 'rest...' as 't2'
t0 + (t1 + (t2));          // 'sum(t2)' --> base case!

Or, if you prefer seeing it with numbers,

sum(1.0, 2.0, 3.0);
1.0 + sum(2.0, 3.0);
1.0 + (2.0 + sum(3.0));
1.0 + (2.0 + (3.0));

And there we have it. Although our sum implementation makes use of compile-time recursion, the end result is a linear addition of code. Let’s outline the main techniques we’ve learned here:

  • To unpack a parameter pack, use a templated function taking one (or more) parameters explicitly, and the ‘rest’ of the parameters as a template parameter pack.

  • Recurse towards a base case: call your recursive function with the ‘rest…’ arguments, and let the compiler unpack your parameters in subsequent calls to your recursive function.

  • Allow your base case to overload your recursive case – it will be selected in preference to the recursive case as soon as the parameter pack is empty.

Using variadic functions does indeed require a bit of a change in mindset, and is somewhat more verbose (given the amount of code required to write the base and recursive cases). However, these are the main tools you need for performing computation with variadics: unpack and reduce.

Let’s make our function a little bit more clever: how about instead of computing the sum, we compute something like:

// A function that 'squares' a number; ie, multiples
// it by itself.
template <typename T>
T square(T t) { return t * t; }

// Our base case just returns the value.
template <typename T>
double power_sum(T t) { return t; }

// Our new recursive case.
template <typename T, typename... Rest>
double power_sum(T t, Rest... rest) {
  return t + power_sum(square(rest)...);

Notice the expression square(rest).... Recall that the ... operator will expand an entire expression, so for example, when it’s called with square(4.0, 6.0)..., the compiler expands this as square(4.0), square(6.0). Let’s trace the expansion of the resulting code:

power_sum(2.0, 4.0, 6.0);
2.0 + power_sum(square(rest)...);
2.0 + power_sum(square(4.0), square(6.0));
2.0 + (square(4.0) + power_sum(square(rest)...))
2.0 + (square(4.0) + power_sum(square(square(6.0)));
2.0 + (square(4.0) + (square(square(6.0))))

It’s important to note that ... can be used to expand a whole expression containing a parameter pack – this is what makes it so powerful! On the downside, this expansion can only occur in certain contexts, e.g. within a function call. Clever use of ... expansion can allow you to avoid recursion in some cases, although some extra tricks beyond the scope of this article are required.


We’ve outlined some of the basic tools and patterns for implementing variadic functions:

  • Use recursion to implement variadic functions – implement a base case, and a recursive case, and have the recursive case reduce to a base case call;

  • Use ... to unpack parameter packs, or in more clever contexts, to unpack whole expressions containing a parameter pack.

As an aside, I tried to sidestep issues related to pass-by-reference vs. pass-by-value vs. so-called ‘perfect forwarding’, as they’re somewhat orthoginal to understanding variadic functions alone. However, if you want to learn more, you should check out Perfect forwarding and universal references in C++.

Further Reading

These are the resources I found most helpful when getting familiar with variadic templates, and will also outline some other techniques for effective use / implementations.


Please note that I’m not a C++ expert; there’s likely a number of holes in my understanding, but what I divulge here will still hopefully be useful to other beginners.